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authorWill Dietz <github@wdtz.org>2018-06-28 05:36:54 -0500
committerEelco Dolstra <edolstra@gmail.com>2018-06-28 12:36:54 +0200
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[RFC 0023] Support musl libc (#23)
* copy rfc template, unnumbered as of yet * musl-libc RFC: first draft * musl-libc RFC: rename to patch pull req number * musl-libc: whoops, no links in top bit, that's metadata. Move links to later. * record the name of a brave co-author * musl rfc: squash second batch of changes * rfc: specify initial team \o/, add a small clarification. * Add myself to the "musl team"
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+---
+feature: musl-libc
+start-date: 2018-02-19
+author: Will Dietz (@dtzWill)
+co-authors: Shea Levy (@shlevy)
+related-issues: 34645, 6221, ...
+---
+
+
+
+# Summary
+[summary]: #summary
+
+When targeting Linux platforms, Nixpkgs builds software against
+the defacto standard of Linux libc implementations:
+[glibc](https://www.gnu.org/software/libc/).
+
+This RFC proposes adding **experimental** support in Nixpkgs for the use
+of an alternative libc implementation, [musl](https://www.musl-libc.org/),
+for the reasons outlined below.
+Adding this support is similar to introducing support for an architecture,
+and realistically will be limited in compatibility and features
+compared to non-musl siblings such as `x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu`.
+
+Initial support is already available in nixpkgs master, capable
+of building up through important packages such as nixUnstable itself
+and LLVM. This is not to be taken as an endorsement: discussing
+and ultimately deciding whether support for musl should be part of nixpkgs
+is the subject of this RFC. That said, this initial support is
+a reasonable foundation for evaluating technical details discussed below,
+and a convenient way for interested parties to explore the work so far.
+
+To help ensure we're all on the same page, unless otherwise specified
+assume references to musl support implementation are in reference
+to this commit (latest master at time of writing):
+
+[bd7d5b365799a145717d31122ebfd24b51fea117](https://github.com/NixOS/nixpkgs/commit/bd7d5b365799a145717d31122ebfd24b51fea117)
+
+# Motivation
+[motivation]: #motivation
+
+## Why Musl?
+There are many reasons to prefer the use of musl.
+
+musl is advertised as being:
+* lightweight
+* fast
+* simple
+* free
+* correctness: standards-conforming
+* correctness: safety
+
+Additionally it is very popular when statically linking software,
+creating binaries capable of executing most anywhere.
+
+In fact it is for this reason that Nixpkgs itself builds
+the bootstrap busybox using musl.
+
+A somewhat outdated overview comparing musl against other
+implementations is available [here](http://www.etalabs.net/compare_libcs.html).
+Note this comparison is maintained by the (primary) author of musl,
+(as indicated at the top of the page).
+
+I'm unable to find good numbers but musl is "arguably" the second
+most popular libc implementation on Linux, and is used
+by a number of important projects you may be familiar with
+large userbases, including:
+* Alpine Linux - [#70 on Distrowatch](https://distrowatch.com/table.php?distribution=alpine) but very popular amongst docker users for producing slim container images.
+* [OpenWRT/LEDE](https://openwrt.org/) - #1 open-source Linux router firmware project; foundation of most other projects targetting routers.
+More projects and details of how they use musl can be found here:
+
+https://wiki.musl-libc.org/projects-using-musl.html
+
+## Why Nixpkgs?
+
+The importance of musl is not the primary point of contention in this RFC,
+instead perhaps the main question is whether such support belongs in Nixpkgs or not.
+
+The main arguments for inclusion are:
+* **convenience of use**
+* **foundation for exciting future work**: musl is widely used by high-level languages
+ as the libc implementation used to produce statically linked programs:
+ these are easy to deploy, launch quickly, and only include the code required.
+ (NOTE: currently musl support prefers dynamic linking and shared libraries
+ as is the strong preference in Nixpkgs)
+* Software sometimes must be patched to compile or run with musl; in @dtzWill's experience,
+ these changes are largely fixes improving compliance and correctness resulting in
+ higher-quality programs. Recent versions of glibc have started taking stronger stances
+ on enforcing compliance (look at patch fallout folllowing any glibc upgrade in last year or so)
+ resulting in overlapping work from both sides.
+ (NOTE: use of glibc extensions or reliance on non-standard behavior is still common and unlikely to go away soon)
+
+And to a large extent:
+"Why not?" -- similar to including support for architectures such as Aarch64 or RISC-V,
+ and just like support for those architectures it's relatively clear that pushing them
+ into private forks would be detrimental to the nixpkgs project as well as all users
+ interested in using Nixpkgs on those platforms/architectures.
+
+musl is clearly useful for a variety of important use cases,
+however including support has a few costs (see Drawbacks, below):
+do folks believe the costs are too high?
+
+
+## Additional Resources
+
+* [musl FAQ](https://www.musl-libc.org/faq.html)
+* [projects using musl](https://wiki.musl-libc.org/projects-using-musl.html)
+* [Slides from a talk discussing various libcs, 2014](http://events17.linuxfoundation.org/sites/events/files/slides/libc-talk.pdf)
+
+## Related Isssues
+
+* [big musl PR](https://github.com/NixOS/nixpkgs/pull/34645)
+* [issues matching "musl", newest first](https://github.com/NixOS/nixpkgs/search?o=desc&q=musl&s=created&type=Issues&utf8=%E2%9C%93)
+* [2015 libc discussion](https://github.com/NixOS/nixpkgs/issues/6221#issuecomment-116754223)
+
+# Detailed design
+[design]: #detailed-design
+
+## Goals
+### Laying the Foundation
+
+Implement the following in nixpkgs:
+
+* [x] musl-based bootstrap
+* [x] stdenv for native musl building
+* [x] cross-musl stdenv
+
+These are already implemented and are currently tested
+to build and provide basic functionality as part
+of release-cross.nix.
+
+These features would be very difficult to implement
+or maintain externally, and near impossible as an overlay.
+
+## Package Compatibility
+
+For a variety of reasons many packages do not work out-of-the-box
+in musl-based environments.
+
+### "Normalization"
+
+Vast majority of the problems here are "minor" and are the
+sort of problem we regularly encounter and address when
+bumping to a new glibc version, new gcc version, or using
+a clang-based stdenv (such as on Darwin).
+
+I'm calling these fixes "normalization".
+These are changes like "adding a missing include" or
+"don't assume compiler is invoked 'gcc'".
+
+These changes usually can be safely applied on all platforms
+(although sometimes they are not for rebuild reasons)
+and are easy to check for correctness or at least "couldn't-possibly-hurt".
+
+### Big Incompatibilities
+
+Some packages are very much not portable and require significant
+and invasive changes to work with environments they don't expect.
+
+In the context of this RFC's proposed musl support,
+there are a number of packages that are known to be in this category:
+
+* systemd
+* ...
+
+This RFC proposes ignoring those for the immediate future,
+to be revisited later, and focuses on systemd.
+
+#### Systemd
+
+Currently many packages depend on systemd.
+This dependency is indirect for all but a handful of packages,
+with a few key pieces of software integrating with systemd.
+
+As far as I know this dependency is generally optional,
+and so we could easily avoid its use when using musl.
+
+This makes it possible to build a great number of packages
+(thousands) but more complicated software "ecosystems"
+and "desktop environments" will not work without something
+to tie them together with the various roles played by systemd.
+
+Addressing this in any way is not in the scope of this RFC.
+
+Similarly, NixOS itself (especially services) require systemd
+and we do not propose altering this.
+
+An early version of the "musl PR" patched systemd so that it
+would build successfully, using patches from OpenEmbedded.org.
+
+The result was never tested or reviewed in terms of providing
+basic functionality or general suitability for Nixpkgs/NixOs.
+
+(OE folks do great work, but they may expect rather different
+things from systemd or workaround introduced shortcomings elsewhere
+in various capacities)
+
+## Scope
+
+Primarily non-GUI packages for now, due to systemd blocker.
+
+In the future these will be supported.
+
+This RFC is primarily concerned with the groundwork for using musl at all.
+
+## Testing and Maintenance
+
+"Ideally" the answer would be an infinite number of builders would constantly
+build all the things on all the platforms.
+
+Unfortunately this is unrealistic due to capacity constraints and other reasons.
+
+### Responsibility
+
+"musl team" is reponsible, initially consisting of
+
+* @dtzWill
+* @shlevy
+* @domenkozar
+* @rasendubi
+
+A team handle will be created to track this
+and to ping the team on musl-related discussion or issues.
+
+### Infrastructure
+
+Build at least stdenv with more being added in the future.
+
+Jobs may be given lower priority/shares.
+
+# Drawbacks
+[drawbacks]: #drawbacks
+
+Why should we *not* do this?
+
+Potential maintenance burden, particularly regarding collections of patches,
+seems to be the primary concern.
+
+## Additional Costs
+
+* Maintenance
+* Infrastructure (build pressure, storage, ...)
+
+## Fractured Community
+
+> Another issue: adding musl support fractures the Nixpkgs user/development community: some people will run musl-based packages and some will run glibc-based packages. As a result all of Nixpkgs/NixOS will end up being less tested. it doubles the test matrix on Linux, after all.
+
+## Previous Discussion of drawbacks and concerns
+
+This RFC was prompted by concerns about the drawbacks:
+["I'm really not in favour of adding support to Nixpkgs"](https://github.com/NixOS/nixpkgs/pull/34645#issuecomment-366789321).
+This comment echoes very similar concerns expressed [back in 2015](https://github.com/NixOS/nixpkgs/issues/6221#issuecomment-116754223).
+
+# Alternatives
+[alternatives]: #alternatives
+
+* Maintain in a separate fork
+ * [SLNOS project is willing to adopt](https://github.com/NixOS/nixpkgs/pull/34645#issuecomment-366845015)
+* Maintained as an overlay
+* No musl libc support.
+ * Not really an "alternative" :).
+
+# Unresolved questions
+[unresolved]: #unresolved-questions
+
+What parts of the design are still TBD or unknowns?
+
+## Support
+
+We need to work on defining:
+
+* What "Support" entails
+* Responsibility
+* Blame?
+
+For now we leave it as an informal understanding
+which we can improve on in the future.
+
+## Impact
+
+### Infrastructure
+
+* Hydra
+* ofborg
+
+### Complexity
+
+* evaluation complexity
+ * cost of behind-the-scenes "magic" required
+* keeping expressions avoidable
+ * cyclomatic complexity
+
+## How to Remove?
+
+Is there a good way to move forward
+without becoming impossibly intertwined?
+Such that a future party could
+* reduce nixpkgs to what it "would be" without musl support
+* Do so confidently without worrying about subtle
+ breakages?
+
+Maintaining entirely as an overlay (or fork?)
+is an obviously effective solution in this regard.
+Clear separation and enforced use of carefully crafted
+interfaces/abstractions may also help with this.
+
+To some extent the importance of this depends
+on how likely the community expects to find itself
+"regretting" or wanting to be "rid" of musl support.
+
+However the design and use of good abstractions
+is valuable in all cases :).
+
+# Future work
+[future]: #future-work
+
+### Fetch, Unpack, Patch
+
+(TODO: Split to new RFC?)
+It may be possible to leverage proper use of "phases" so that
+we can provide reasonable coverage of the unpack and patch
+phases for all "supported" configurations.
+
+As an example, this would make it possible for our x86_64 builders and users to
+get feedback ensuring that changes didn't break hashes or patch application
+elsewhere without requiring builders of each configuration.
+
+The benefit of this would be in avoiding most of the burden of building everything
+while making it easy to catch the most common sort of problems
+so they can be addressed ("oops I didn't update the hash for darwin")
+or flagged for investigation.
+
+I believe there's a branch or PR trying this somewhere.
+Regardless, out of scope for this RFC.